The first characterization of the kinetics and subcellular compartmentation of adenylate kinase activity in intact muscle has been accomplished using rat diaphragm equilibrated with [18O]water. Rates of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer were measured by appearance of 18O-labeled β-phosphoryls in ADP and ATP resulting from the transfer to AMP of newly synthesized 18O-labeled γ-ATP. Unique features of adenylate kinase catalysis were uncovered in the intact cell not predictable from cell free analysis. This enzyme activity, which in non-contracting muscle is limited to 1/1000 of the estimated V(max) (cell free) apparently because of restricted ADP availability, is localized in subcellular compartments that increase in size and/or number with contractile frequency. Contraction also causes frequency-dependent increments in adenylate kinase velocity (22-fold at 4 Hz) as does oxygen deprivation (35-fold). These enhanced rates of adenylate kinase activity, equivalent to processing all the cellular ATP and ADP in approximately 1 min, occur when levels of ATP, ADP, and AMP are maintained very near their basal steady state. These characteristics of the dynamics of adenylate kinase catalysis in the intact cell demonstrate that rapid rates of AMP production from ADP are balanced by equally rapid rates of AMP phosphorylation with no net synthesis or accumulation of any adenine nucleotide. This rapid processing of nucleotide phosphoryls conforms to a proposed scheme whereby the adenylate kinase system provides the unique function of transferring, as β-ADP, high energy phosphoryls generated by glycolytic metabolism to ATP-utilizing components in muscle.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1990|