Evaluation of White Lupines and Triticale in Calf Starter Diets

K. L. Wright, D. E. Otterby, J. G. Linn, Marshall D Stern, G. D. Marx, D. G. Johnson

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One hundred fifty-two Holstein calves were used to evaluate white lupines (Lupinus albus cv. Ultra) and triticale in starter diets. The basal diet contained corn, oats, minerals, and vitamins. Starter components were 1) 14% soybean meal; 2) 10% soybean meal and 27% triticale; 3) 22% lupines; 4) 16% lupines and 24.5% triticale; 5) 11% lupines and 8% soybean meal; and 6) 7% lupines, 5% soybean meal, and 26.5% triticale. Dietary CP was approximately 16% of DM. Data collection began on d 4 after birth and continued through d 56. Calves were fed 3.6 kg of fermented colostrum from d 4 to 14 and 4.5 kg of fermented whole milk from d 15 to weaning at d 28. Starter diets and water were offered for ad libitum consumption from d 4 to 56. Dietary treatment had no effect on starter intake or weight gains. Average total gains during the experimental period were 25.6, 23.0, 23.3, 23.2, 25.0, and 21.6 kg for treatments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively. Calf health was excellent. Starter diets were examined in a dual flow continuous culture system to evaluate fermentation by rumen bacteria. Digestibilities of DM, organic matter, and total nonstructural carbohydrate did not differ among treatments. Ammonia N concentrations ranged from 11.9 to 13.8 mg/100 ml effluent. Chemical composition of bacteria, efficiency of bacterial protein synthesis, total VFA concentration in the effluent, and amino acid flow were similar for all treatments. The results indicate that lupines and triticale are satisfactory for use in calf starters when included in amounts equal to or less than those used in this experiment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1002-1011
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1989


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