Evaluation of trace mineral source and preharvest deletion of trace minerals from finishing diets for pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork quality

Y. L. Ma, M. D. Lindemann, G. L. Cromwell, R. B. Cox, G. Rentfrow, J. L. Pierce

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11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Weanling crossbred pigs (Sus scrofa; 72 barrows and 72 gilts; BW = 7.4 ± 1.1 kg) were used to evaluate dietary supplemental trace mineral (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) source (inorganic vs. organic) and deletion (0, 2, 4, and 6 wk preharvest) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork quality. Pigs were blocked by BW, ancestry, and sex, and randomly allotted to 24 pens, and fed a diet containing either inorganic or organic trace minerals supplemented at the 1998 NRC requirement estimates for each of 5 BW phases from 7 to 120 kg (equivalent to 14, 14, 42, 28, and 42-d periods, respectively). Two pigs were removed from each pen at the end of Phase IV (BW = 82.6 ± 6.0 kg), and 2 other pigs were removed at the end of Phase V (BW = 128.0 ± 8.3 kg) for collection of various tissues and for determination of carcass characteristics and pork quality. On d 1, 15, and 29 of Phase V, 3 pens within each source of minerals were switched to a common diet without supplemental trace minerals, whereas the remaining 3 pens within each source of minerals were fed diets containing trace minerals throughout the Phase V period. This resulted in 4 groups within each mineral treatment, in which trace mineral supplementation was deleted for 6, 4, 2, or 0 wk of Phase V. Trace mineral source (inorganic vs. organic) did not affect ADG, ADFI, and G:F (773 vs. 778 g/d, 1,680 vs. 1,708 g/d, and 461 vs. 456 g/kg, respectively) during the first 4 phases. During the mineral deletion period, ADG and G:F were not affected by the duration of trace mineral deletion, but ADFIincreased when trace minerals were removed from the diet for 6 wk (6 vs. 0 wk, 3,393 vs. 3,163 g/d; P = 0.05). Hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, carcass shrink, dressing percentage, LM area, 10th rib and midline average backfat, and carcass fat-free lean weight and percentage were not affected (P > 0.10) by the source of mineral or length of mineral deletion, but carcass length tended to decrease (P = 0.09) when time of trace mineral deletion increased. Increasing mineral deletion from 0 to 6 wk tended to reduce linearly (P = 0.08) Hunter a* scores on the day of carcass processing (24 h after slaughter), as well as 2 d after processing, and Hunter b* scores on d 2 and d 6 after processing. Results of this experiment indicate that use of organic trace minerals, rather than inorganic trace minerals, did not influence pig growth performance or carcass characteristics and quality; however, deletion of minerals during the last 6 wk before harvest increased ADFIand affected drip loss, some color scores of the LM, and carcass length.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3833-3841
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume90
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2012

Keywords

  • Carcass characteristics
  • Deletion
  • Pigs
  • Pork quality
  • Trace minerals

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