Evaluation of Operating Margin and Switching Probability of Voltage-Controlled Magnetic Anisotropy Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

Jeehwan Song, Ibrahim Ahmed, Zhengyang Zhao, Delin Zhang, Sachin S Sapatnekar, Jianping Wang, Chris H. Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) has attracted great attention as it allows faster switching and lower energy consumption compared to traditional spin-Transfer torque-based magnetization switching. In this paper, we evaluate the operating margin and switching probability of VCMA-based magnetic tunnel junctions using realistic material and device parameters. For this paper, we developed a physics-based SPICE model that incorporates various VCMA parameters such as VCMA coefficient, energy barrier, time constant, and external magnetic field. Switching probability of a VCMA device was obtained by running Monte Carlo simulations including thermal fluctuation effects. A design space exploration was performed using the proposed simulation framework. The highest switching probabilities we were able to achieve were 94.9%, 84.8%, and 53.5%, for VCMA coefficient values of 33, 105, and 290\,\,\text (fJ)\cdot \text (V)(-1)\cdot \text (m)(-1) , respectively. Our study shows that for VCMA devices to become viable, their switching probability must be improved significantly either through new physics or material innovation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8528833
Pages (from-to)76-84
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 2018



  • Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)
  • VCMA coefficient
  • switching probability
  • voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA)

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