Objective - To evaluate platelet surface-associated P-selectin, mean platelet component concentration (MPC), mean platelet component distribution width (MPCDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet distribution width (PDW) for detection of activated platelets in dogs with septic and nonseptic inflammatory disease. Animals - 20 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with septic and nonseptic inflammatory disease. Procedures - Platelet surface-associated P-selectin (expressed as the median fluorescence intensity [MFI] of the platelet population), MPC, MPCDW, MPV, and PDW were determined in 20 healthy adult dogs, and reference ranges were calculated. These parameters were also determined in 11 dogs with nonseptic and 9 dogs with septic inflammatory disease and evaluated to determine which parameters were useful for detection of activated platelets. Results - 12 dogs with inflammatory disease had P-selectin greater than the upper limit of the reference range, whereas 16 dogs with inflammatory disease had MPC lower than the lower limit of the reference range. All dogs in which P-selectin was greater than the upper limit of the reference range had MPC lower than the lower limit of the reference range. The correlation coefficient for P-selectin and MPC was 0.62. Differences in the MPCDW, MPV, and PDW in most dogs with inflammatory disease (compared with healthy dogs) were found; however, the correlation coefficients for P-selectin and MPCDW, MPV, and PDW were low. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Platelet surface-associated P-selectin and MPC appeared to be useful to detect activated platelets in most dogs with septic and nonseptic inflammatory disease.