Evaluation of Chemical and Physical Properties of Feeds That Affect Protein Metabolism In the Rumen

M. D. Stern, G. A. Varga, J. H. Clark, J. L. Firkins, J. T. Huber, D. L. Palmquist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

159 Scopus citations


The goal of the NC-185 Cooperative Regional Research Project is to provide the information needed to improve the nutrition and feeding of dairy cattle, a major factor determining composition of milk and cost of milk yield. Emphasis is placed on understanding how energy and protein nutrition of lactating cows can be manipulated to increase the quantity and improve the profile of AA passing to the small intestine and to improve yield of milk and milk protein. To achieve this goal, one of the major objectives of this project has been to evaluate quantitatively the chemical and physical properties of protein and energy sources that determine AA availability to lactating cows. Reliable measurements of microbial protein synthesis and protein degradation in the rumen are critical in the evaluation process. Therefore, one of the ongoing areas of investigation of this research project has been to determine the most appropriate methods for estimating microbial protein synthesis and dietary protein degradation in the rumen. Other areas have been investigated, using continuous culture fermenters and ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows, including factors that alter microbial metabolism of N in the rumen and subsequently protein supply to the small intestine, such as sources of carbohydrate, protein, and fat and interrelationships of protein and carbohydrate. Findings of the NC-185 Cooperative Regional Research Project Committee and other investigators are summarized in this review.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2762-2786
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1994


  • BM
  • CGM
  • Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids
  • CaLCFA
  • DAPA
  • DIP
  • FAB
  • FM
  • HFM
  • MBM
  • NSC
  • OM truly digested in the rumen
  • OMD
  • PAB
  • RUP
  • SBM
  • TAA N
  • amino acids
  • blood meal
  • corn gluten meal
  • degradable intake protein
  • degradation
  • di-aminopimelic acid
  • fish meal
  • fluid-associated bacteria
  • hydrolyzed feather meal
  • meat and bone meal
  • microbial protein
  • non-structural carbohydrates
  • nonammonia nonmicrobial N
  • particle-associated bacteria
  • rumen
  • ruminally undegradable protein
  • soybean meal
  • total AA N


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