Evaluation of a dithiocarbamate derivative as a model of thiol oxidative stress in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes

Jiashu Xie, Ashley Potter, Wei Xie, Christophina Lynch, Teresa Seefeldt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Thiol redox state (TRS) refers to the balance between reduced thiols and their corresponding disulfides and is mainly reflected by the ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG). A decrease in GSH/GSSG, which reflects a state of thiol oxidative stress, as well as thiol modifications such as S-glutathionylation, has been shown to have important implications in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, research models for inducing thiol oxidative stress are important tools for studying the pathophysiology of these disease states as well as examining the impact of pharmacological interventions on thiol pathways. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a dithiocarbamate derivative, 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2- carboxyethylsulfanylthiocarbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA), as a pharmacological model of thiol oxidative stress by examining the extent of thiol modifications induced in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes and its impact on cellular functions. The extent of thiol oxidative stress produced by 2-AAPA was also compared to other models of oxidative stress including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), diamide, buthionine sulfoximine, and N,N'-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitroso-urea. Results indicated that 2-AAPA effectively inhibited glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase activities and decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio by causing a significant accumulation of GSSG. 2-AAPA also increased the formation of protein disulfides as well as S-glutathionylation. The alteration in TRS led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and increase in reactive oxygen species production. Compared to other models, 2-AAPA is more potent at creating a state of thiol oxidative stress with lower cytotoxicity, higher specificity, and more pharmacological relevance, and could be utilized as a research tool to study TRS-related normal and abnormal biochemical processes in cardiovascular diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)214-222
Number of pages9
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
StatePublished - May 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding for this project was provided by a grant from the National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ( R15 HL102777 ).


  • Cardiomyocytes
  • Enzyme inhibitor
  • Free radicals
  • Glutathione
  • Glutathione reductase
  • Oxidative stress
  • Thiol redox state


Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of a dithiocarbamate derivative as a model of thiol oxidative stress in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this