Evaluating the readiness of pre-referral intervention teams for use in a problem solving model

Matthew K. Burns, Mike L. Vanderwood, Susan Ruby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Scholars have suggested that school psychologists should implement a problem solving approach to practice (Reschly & Ysseldyke, 2002). Pre-referral intervention teams (PITs) are a frequently used model in education and are a preferred service option among school psychologists. Thus, the PIT model could be expanded to more effectively function within a problem solving approach, but research is needed to examine the use of PITs in this format. Ellis (2001) suggested that educational innovations require research that demonstrates sound theoretical basis, proven effectiveness, and consistent widespread implementation. The current article reviewed research and concluded that the PIT model was developed from a solid theoretic base and data exist to support its effectiveness. However, consistent implementation has not been achieved and remains a significant barrier to moving toward a problem solving approach. Research is needed regarding team format, assignment of staff, training, and treatment fidelity to better assure consistency through recommendations for practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-105
Number of pages17
JournalSchool Psychology Quarterly
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2005
Externally publishedYes


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