Evaluating the impact of feedback on elementary aged students' fluency growth in written expression: A randomized controlled trial

Adrea J. Truckenmiller, Tanya L. Eckert, Robin S. Codding, Yaacov Petscher

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22 Scopus citations


The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate elementary-aged students' writing fluency growth in response to (a) instructional practices, (b) sex differences, and (c) student's initial level of writing fluency. Third-grade students (n=133) in three urban elementary schools were randomly assigned to either an individualized performance feedback condition (n=46), a practice-only condition (i.e., weekly writing practice; n=39), or an instructional control condition (n=48) for 8 weeks. Findings included support for use of performance feedback as an instructional component in general education classrooms (Hedges' g=0.66), whereas simple practice with curriculum-based measurement in written expression did not produce growth significantly greater than standard instructional practices. The hypothesis that girls write significantly more than boys was supported. However, girls and boys did not differ in their rate of growth. Finally, students' initial risk status in writing fluency did not differentially predict growth in writing fluency over the course of the study. Implications for incorporating feedback as a basic component of intervention in writing are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)531-548
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of school psychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported, in part, by a Graduate Student Research Award from the National Association of School Psychologists in 2009 to the first author. Y. Petscher's contribution was was supported, in part, by the Institute of Education Sciences’ Reading for Understanding Consortium R305F100005 and Learning Disabilities Research Centers Consortium of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development P50 HD052120.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014.


  • Performance feedback
  • Writing fluency
  • Writing instruction


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