Evaluating strategies and costs to recruit smokeless tobacco users

Raymond G. Boyle, Chris Enstad, Stephen E. Asche, Merry J. Thoele, Nancy E. Sherwood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


We recruited smokeless tobacco users throughout Minnesota to participate in a trial testing telephone counseling versus a written self-help manual for cessation. This paper describes the recruitment strategies applied on a state-wide basis. We established a recruitment tracking system to monitor weekly rates of screened callers and returned consents, allowing us to adjust future recruitment efforts. Screening was completed with 783 callers, with 406 subjects enrolled. Overall 44% of initial contacts and 52% of those screened enrolled in the study. The overall average cost per consented subject was $99. Sports talk radio, small print ads, and newspaper articles based on press releases were consistently effective channels for recruitment. The overall cost was expensive but reflected the geographic diversity of recruitment and the prevalence of oral snuff use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3088-3092
Number of pages5
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Any public dissemination of information relating to the grant was made possible by Grant Number RC-2004-0010 from ClearWay MinnesotaSM. Its contents are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of ClearWay Minnesota.


  • Cessation
  • Costs
  • Recruitment
  • Smokeless tobacco


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