Evaluating Domestic Well Vulnerability to Contamination From Unconventional Oil and Gas Development Sites

Mario A. Soriano, Helen G. Siegel, Kristina M. Gutchess, Cassandra J. Clark, Yunpo Li, Boya Xiong, Desiree L. Plata, Nicole C. Deziel, James E. Saiers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The rapid expansion of unconventional oil and gas development (UD), made possible by horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, has triggered concerns over groundwater contamination and public health risks. To improve our understanding of the risks posed by UD, we develop a physically based, spatially explicit framework for evaluating groundwater well vulnerability to aqueous phase contaminants released from surface spills and leaks at UD well pad locations. The proposed framework utilizes the concept of capture probability and incorporates decision-relevant planning horizons and acceptable risks to support goal-oriented modeling for groundwater protection. We illustrate the approach in northeastern Pennsylvania, where a high intensity of UD activity overlaps with local dependence on domestic groundwater wells. Using two alternative models of the bedrock aquifer and a precautionary paradigm to integrate their results, we found that most domestic wells in the domain had low vulnerability as the extent of their modeled probabilistic capture zones were smaller than distances to the nearest existing UD well pad. We also found that simulated capture probability and vulnerability were most sensitive to the model parameters of matrix hydraulic conductivity, porosity, pumping rate, and the ratio of fracture to matrix conductivity. Our analysis demonstrated the potential inadequacy of current state-mandated setback distances that allow UD within the boundaries of delineated capture zones. The proposed framework, while limited to aqueous phase contamination, emphasizes the need to incorporate information on flow paths and transport timescales into policies aiming to protect groundwater from contamination by UD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2020WR028005
JournalWater Resources Research
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This publication was developed under Assistance Agreement No. CR839249 awarded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to Yale University. It has not been formally reviewed by EPA. The views expressed in this document are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Agency. EPA does not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication. The first author was also supported by the Yale Institute for Biospheric Studies Small Grants Program. The authors thank the two anonymous reviewers and Melissa M. Rohde for their thoughtful comments that led to improvements in this manuscript. We also thank the Yale Center for Research Computing for guidance and use of the high performance computing infrastructure.


  • capture zone
  • decision support
  • groundwater contamination
  • risk analysis
  • unconventional oil and gas
  • water management


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