Objectives: Ethnic identity development is considered a central task of adolescence and emerging adulthood for ethnic minority individuals. Although the process of developing a coherent ethnic identity has received attention from researchers, there has been little work done to elucidate the content of ethnic identity. This study uses an inductive mixed-methods approach to address 1 aspect of ethnic identity content: typicality, or the degree of perceived similarity individuals feel to their ethnic-racial group. Method: Participants included 974 college students at 3 universities-66% women, average age 20.4 years, 5% Black, 30% Asian, 10% Latinx, 40% White, 11% Multiracial, 1% American Indian, and 4% Other race- ethnicity. Thematic analysis was used to code qualitative categories on what makes individuals typical of and atypical of their ethnic group. Codes were used to quantitatively assess relations between aspects of typicality, ethnic identity, and mental health. Results: Findings suggest that individuals judged their typicality and atypicality to their ethnic group by focusing on skin color, hair, facial features; values related to family, achievement, and religion-spirituality; and behaviors related to arts-media, sports, spending time with others, and food. Additionally, findings demonstrated that most individuals feel typical of their ethnic group and, of importance, that level of perceived typicality was inversely related to measures of ethnic identity and well-being. Finally, participants differed in their feeling of being typical by ethnic-racial group identifications. Conclusions: Ethnic-racial typicality provides valuable information about ethnic identity content and is related to important mental health outcomes.
- Ethnic identity
- Racial prototypes