1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a known human carcinogen used in the synthetic polymer industry and also found in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust and wood burning smoke. BD is metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) 2E1 and 2A6 to 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which can be detoxified by GST-catalyzed glutathione conjugation or hydrolysis. We have previously observed ethnic differences in urinary levels of EB-mercapturic acids in white, Japanese American and Native Hawaiian smokers. In the present study, similar analyses were extended to urinary BD-DNA adducts. BD-induced N7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) adducts were quantified in urine samples obtained from smokers and non-smokers belonging to three racial/ethnic groups: white, Japanese American and Native Hawaiian. After adjusting for sex, age, nicotine equivalents, body mass index and batch, we found that Japanese American smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of urinary EB-GII than whites [1.45 (95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.87) versus 0.68 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.85) fmol/ml urine, P = 4 × 10-5]. Levels of urinary EB-GII in Native Hawaiian smokers were not different from those in whites [0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.51-0.84) fmol/ml urine, P = 0.938]. There were no racial/ethnic differences in urinary EB-GII adduct levels in non-smokers. Racial/ethnic differences in urinary EB-GII adduct levels in smokers could not be explained by GSTT1 gene deletion or CYP2A6 enzymatic activity. Urinary EB-GII adduct levels in smokers were significantly associated with concentrations of BD metabolite dihyroxybutyl mercapturic acid. Overall, our results reveal that urinary EB-GII adducts in smokers differ across racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are required to understand genetic and epigenetic factors that may be responsible for these differences.
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PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural