Estradiol effect on anterior crural muscles-tibial bone relationship and susceptibility to injury

Gordon L. Warren, Dawn A. Lowe, Cindi L. Inman, Otto M. Orr, Harry A. Hogan, Susan A. Bloomfield, R. B. Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


The study's objective was to determine whether estradiol (E2) deficiency alters the functional relationship of muscle to bone and causes a differential increase in injury susceptibility. Ovariectomized 6-wk-old mice were administered E2 (40 μg · day-1 · kg-1; n = 8) or the oil vehicle (n = 8) for 21 days. The anterior crural muscles of the left hindlimb were then stimulated to produce 150 maximal in vivo eccentric contractions. In vitro functional measurements were then made on the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and tibia from both the exercised and unexercised legs. The maximal isometric torque produced by the anterior crural muscles before the eccentric contraction protocol and the unexercised EDL maximal isometric tetanic force (P(o)) were higher in E2-treated mice by 18 and 14%, respectively (P ≤ 0.03). Both ultimate load and stiffness for the unexercised tibia were higher by 16% in E2-treated mice (P ≤ 0.03). The muscle-to-bone relationship of these measurements was unaffected by E2 status (P ≥ 0.59). No evidence for increased injury susceptibility was found in either tissue from E2-deficient mice. In fact, the decrement in P(o) was only 36.9 ± 3.8% in exercised EDL muscles from E2-deficient mice compared with 50.6 ± 4.2% in exercised muscles from E2-treated mice (P = 0.03). Tibia stiffness was 3.9% higher in bones from exercised legs than in bones from unexercised legs (72.64 ± 2.77 vs. 69.95 ± 2.66 N/mm; P = 0.05) with ultimate load showing a similar trend (P = 0.07); no effect of E2 status was observed on these differences (P ≥ 0.53). In conclusion, the functional relationship of bone to muscle and the susceptibility to injury in bone are not altered by the presence of E2 in ovariectomized mice; however, E2 does increase injury susceptibility in the EDL muscle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1660-1665
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of applied physiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1996


  • biomechanics
  • exercise
  • muscle damage
  • muscle stretch


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