## Abstract

We show theoretically that the average energy consumption of a ripple-carry adder is O(W), and the upper bound on the average energy consumption is O(W log_{2}W), where W is the word-length of the operands. Our theoretical analysis is based on a simple state transition diagram (STD) model of a full adder cell and the observations that the average length of a carry propagation chain is v = 2, and the average length of the maximum carry chain is v ≤ log_{2}W. To verify our theoretical conclusions, we use the HEAT CAD tool to estimate the average power consumed by the ripple-carry adder for word-lengths 4 ≤ W ≤ 64. The experimental results show that, for W ≥ 16, the error in our theoretical estimations is around 15%.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages | 189-198 |

Number of pages | 10 |

State | Published - 1996 |

Event | Proceedings of the 1996 9th IEEE Workshop on VLSI Signal Processing - San Francisco, CA, USA Duration: Oct 30 1996 → Nov 1 1996 |

### Other

Other | Proceedings of the 1996 9th IEEE Workshop on VLSI Signal Processing |
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City | San Francisco, CA, USA |

Period | 10/30/96 → 11/1/96 |