Estimating threshold effects of U.S. generic fluid milk advertising

Kenji Adachi, Donald J Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Adopting a spline threshold estimation procedure, this article investigates the threshold effects on demand of generic fluid milk advertising. A quarterly fluid milk demand equation with unknown thresholds is estimated. The results support the existence of a minimum threshold below which advertising has no impact on sales, and an upper threshold beyond which the law of diminishing returns dictates. Advertising is also found to have the effect of rendering fluid milk demand less elastic with respect to own price, and more elastic with respect to income.The simulations highlight the importance of accounting for threshold effects when evaluating promotion programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)727-729
Number of pages3
JournalAmerican Journal of Agricultural Economics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2010

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding for this project was provided by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station (MIN-14-057) and the National Institute for Commodity Promotion Research and Evaluation.


  • Advertising elasticity
  • Advertising threshold
  • Dairy industry model
  • Generic fluid milk promotion
  • Spline threshold model


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