Estimated energy and nutrient composition of different sources of food waste and their potential for use in sustainable swine feeding programs

Leonard Fung, Pedro E. Urriola, Lawrence Baker, Gerald C. Shurson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


About 40% of the total food produced in the United States is wasted throughout the supply chain. The objective of this study was to determine the energy and nutrient content and variability of food waste sources generated at different stages within the food supply chain in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, metropolitan area, and their potential for use in swine diets. A total of four waste sources were selected: supermarket (SM; retail to consumer), university residential dining hall (RH; consumer to postconsumer), a city waste transfer station (TS; postconsumer to municipal waste disposal), and household source-separated organic recycling program (SSO; postconsumer to municipal waste). Samples were collected (SM: n = 22; RH: n = 60; TS: n = 27; SSO: n =12) and analyzed for GE, proximate analyses, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acid concentrations along with lipid peroxidation indicators including peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS). Data were analyzed using a general linear model that included food waste source as the main factor, and least squared means with adjustment were used for multiple comparisons. Samples of SM food waste contained the greatest (P < 0.05) concentration of GE (5,909 kcal/kg) compared with RH, TS, and SSO sources. Calculated NE of SM (3,740 kcal/kg) was also the greatest compared with the three other food waste sources. Food waste from SM, RH, and SSO, but not TS, had greater (P < 0.05) calculated NE than published values for corn and soybean meal. Concentrations of Lys (1.82%), Met (0.53%), Thr (1.07%), and Trp (0.27) content were greater in SM than in RH, TS, and SSO, but these concentrations were less than published values for soybean meal. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the phosphorus content of samples among food waste sources (0.30% to 0.64%). PV and TBARS were greatest (P < 0.05) in the SSO samples (PV = 82.4 meq/kg oil; TBARS = 2.44 mg malondialdehyde (MDA) eq/g oil) compared with the other three food waste sources. Although the concentrations of nutrients and calculated energy values of the food waste sources were moderately high compared with corn and soybean meal, their composition was more variable (i.e., greater SD of means). Food waste generated upstream (SM) in the food supply chain appears to have greater nutritional value than postconsumer food waste (RH, TS, and SSO), but all sources appear suitable for use in commercial swine diets provided that ME, NE, and nutrient digestibility values are well characterized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)48-57
Number of pages10
JournalTranslational Animal Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Gustavsson, J., C. Cederberg, and U. Sonesson. 2011. Global food losses and food waste. Rome (Italy): Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK); 2011. Available from mb060e00.pdf; last accessed August 22, 2018.

Publisher Copyright:
© © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society of Animal Science.


  • amino acids
  • energy
  • food waste
  • nutrients
  • phosphorus
  • swine


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