Esophageal cancer is a malignancy of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, or gastric cardia extending proximally. The two most common histologies have well-described risk factors, with reflux esophagitis and Barrett esophagus associated with adenocarcinoma and extensive smoking and/or alcohol consumption associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Prevention requires reduction of risk factors and early diagnosis with high index of suspicion for cancer in patients with symptoms such as dysphagia and/or weight loss. Treatment involves local or ablative therapy for noninvasive tumors or surgery for early stage tumors. Locally advanced disease is treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. Treated patients must be followed with examination and imaging to identify recurrence.
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© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- Esophageal cancer
- Gastroesophageal junction tumor
- Ivor lewis
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Trans-hiatal esophagectomy