Equivalent dipole estimation of spontaneous EEG alpha activity: two-moving dipole approach

B. He, T. Musha

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24 Scopus citations


A method of estimating equivalent moving and fixed dipoles from the scalp-recorded EEG alpha waves, with the realistic geometry of the head taken into account, is presented. Twenty-one silver electrodes were used to collect spontaneous EEG alpha waves on the scale. Four models, the single-moving dipole model, the single-fixed dipole model, the two-moving dipole model and the two-fixed dipole model were applied to approximate the EEG alpha field on the scalp. The algorithm, based on a least-squares fit for estimating the moving and the fixed dipoles by using a realistically shaped head model, is described. The numerical accuracy of the algorithm is also evaluated by a computer simulation. It is found that the spontaneous EEG alpha activity observed on the scalp can be represented by two equivalent moving dipoles, simultaneously located separately in the occipital regions of the right and the left hemisphere, at a depth of 4-6 cm beneath the scalp, with a goodness-of-fit of up to 97 per cent for all subjects examined. The excellent fit of the two-moving dipole model to the EEG human alpha activity is also compared with the single-dipole fit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)324-332
Number of pages9
JournalMedical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • Alpha rhythm
  • Boundary element method
  • Dipole localisation
  • EEG
  • Head model
  • Inverse problem
  • Topography


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