EPR and Mössbauer studies of protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase. Characterization of a new Fe2+ environment.

D. M. Arciero, J. D. Lipscomb, B. H. Huynh, T. A. Kent, E. Münck

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Protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas testosteroni has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The iron containing, extradiol dioxygenase is shown to be composed of two subunit types (alpha, Mr = 17,700 and beta, Mr = 33,800) in a 1:1 ratio; such a composition has not been observed for other extradiol dioxygenases. The 4.2 K Mössbauer spectrum of native protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase prepared from cells grown in 57Fe-enriched media consists of a doublet with quadrupole splitting, delta EQ = 2.22 mm/s, and isomer shift delta Fe = 1.28 mm/s, demonstrating a high spin Fe2+ site. These parameters, and the temperature dependence of delta EQ, are unique among enzymes but are strikingly similar to those reported for the reaction center of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides R-26, suggesting very similar ligand environments. The Fe2+ of protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase can be oxidized, for instance by H2O2, to yield high spin Fe3+ with EPR g values around g = 6 (and g = 4.3). In the oxidized state, protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase is inactive; the iron, however, can be rereduced by ascorbate to yield active enzyme. Our data suggest that protocatechuate binds to Fe2+; the spectra indicate that the ligand binding is heterogenous. The Mössbauer spectra observed here are fundamentally different from those reported earlier (Zabinski, R., Münck, E., Champion, P., and Wood, J. M. (1972) Biochemistry 11, 3212-3219). The spectra of the earlier (reconstituted) preparations, which had substantially lower specific activities, probably reflect adventitiously bound Fe3+. We discuss here how adventitiously bound iron can be identified and removed. The Fe2+ which is present in native protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase and its complexes with substrates and inhibitors reacts quantitatively with nitric oxide to produce a species with electronic spin S = 3/2. The EPR and Mössbauer spectra of these complexes compare favorably with EDTA . Fe(II) . NO. We have studied the latter complex extensively and have analyzed the Mössbauer spectra with an S = 3/2 spin Hamiltonian. EPR spectra show that protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase-NO complexes with substrates or inhibitors are heterogeneous and consist of several well defined subspecies. The data show that NO, and presumably also O2, has access to the active site Fe2+ in the enzyme-substrate complex. The use of EPR-detectable NO complexes as a rapid and sensitive tool for the study of the EPR silent active site iron of extradiol dioxygenases is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14981-14991
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 25 1983


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