Epizootiology of avian influenza--simultaneous monitoring of sentinel ducks and turkeys in Minnesota.

D. Halvorson, D. Karunakaran, D. Senne, C. Kelleher, C. Bailey, A. Abraham, V. Hinshaw, J. Newman

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118 Scopus citations


Isolation-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were placed on ponds in turkey-rearing areas in Minnesota, and their cloacae were periodically swabbed to attempt isolating virus from embryonated chicken eggs. Nearby turkeys were sampled by taking cloacal and tracheal swabs as well as blood samples. Hemagglutinating viruses were identified at the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa. During this two-year study, the weekly influenza virus-isolation rate from ducks varied from 0 to 24.4%. A total of 213 influenza viruses were isolated from the ducks. Twenty-six influenza virus subtypes were detected. Ninety-seven flocks of turkeys were diagnosed as having influenza by virus isolation and/or serology. Eight influenza virus subtypes were involved in the turkey outbreaks, and seven of these were also detected in the ducks and/or other avian species. The weekly infection rate of the sentinel ducks correlated directly with observations of wild ducks at the monitoring sites. Influenza virus was isolated from water samples collected near the sentinel duck sites during the study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)77-85
Number of pages9
JournalAvian diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1983


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