Objectives: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) has emerged as an important complication of CF. To better understand who is at risk of developing CFRD, to gain insight into the impact of CFRD on pulmonary and nutritional status, and to assess the association of CFRD with various practice patterns and comorbid conditions, we characterized the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis (ESCF) patient population. Study design: Analyses were performed on the 8247 adolescents and adults who were evaluated at one of 204 participating sites during 1998. CFRD was defined as the use of insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent at any time during the year. Results: Previously reported risk factors for CFRD including age, gender (female), and pancreatic insufficiency were confirmed in this study. Patients with CFRD had more severe pulmonary disease, more frequent pulmonary exacerbations, and poorer nutritional status as compared with those without diabetes. CFRD also was associated with liver disease. Conclusions: CFRD is a common complication in adolescents and adults that is associated with more severe disease.