Introduction: Norovirus, mainly associated with acute gastroenteritis, is very contagious and can affect a vast range of species ranging from cattle, pigs, dogs, mice, cats, sheep, and lions to humans. It is a foodborne pathogen that mainly transmits through the fecal–oral route. Methods: This is the first-ever study conducted in Lahore and Sheikhupura districts of Punjab, Pakistan, to investigate noroviruses through the One Health approach. From January 2020 to September 2021, 200 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of hospitalized patients and 200 fecal samples from sick animals at veterinary hospitals and local farms. In addition, 500 food and beverage samples were collected from street vendors and retail stores. A predesigned questionnaire was used to assess the risk factors and clinical characteristics of sick people and animals. Results and discussion: Overall, 14% of the human clinical samples were positive by RT-PCR for genogroup GII. All bovine samples were negative. Food and beverage samples were tested in pools, resulting in sugarcane juice samples positive for genogroup GII. Previous contact with acute gastroenteritis patients, sex, and presence of vomiting were found to be significant risk factors (p ≤ 0.05). The substantial number of diarrhea cases associated with noroviruses calls for additional studies to investigate the epidemiology and transmission and to improve surveillance.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The study was conducted under the research funding provided by the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan under the HEC-NRPU program (Grant No. 7032/Punjab/NRPU/R&D/HEC/2017).
Copyright © 2023 Yasir, Mahmood, Yaqoob, Zia, Munoz-Zanzi, Alam, Warraich and Hassan Mushtaq.
- One Health
- acute gastroenteritis
- genogroup II and III
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't