Epidemiologic evaluation of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs in the United States: 2010-2015

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6 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Positive health implications of early recognition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis include increased opportunity for nonsurgical removal, early dietary modification to minimize urolith growth, early removal to avoid urinary obstruction, and early recognition of genetic and metabolic diseases before they contribute to additional morbidity.

OBJECTIVES: To identify high- and low-risk dog breeds for CaOx uroliths and to determine the relationship of age and sex to the development of CaOx uroliths.

ANIMALS: Calcium oxalate urolith submissions between 2010 and 2015.

METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to identify high- and low-risk breeds for CaOx uroliths by comparing cases to multiple comparison groups. At-risk breeds were identified if odds ratios were significant (P value <.05) across all comparison groups.

RESULTS: Of 258 898 urolith submissions, 124 285 were CaOx. Calcium oxalate was identified in 212 breeds. Twelve breeds were identified as high-risk breeds, and 14 breeds were identified as low-risk breeds. All high-risk breeds were small dog breeds, and all low-risk breeds were medium to large dog breeds. Overall, the mean age ± standard deviation of the first CaOx urolith was 8.4 ± 2.8 years.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: To achieve the health benefits of preclinical evaluation, breeds at high risk for CaOx urolithiasis should be screened at 5 to 6 years of age, which is 2 to 3 years before likely development of clinical urolithiasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2090-2095
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of veterinary internal medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


  • North America
  • calculus
  • dog
  • epidemiology
  • risk factor

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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