Aims - To determine the etiologic role of neurocysticercosis (NC) in a hospital-based sample of epilepsies divided according to International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) epidemiological criteria and number of seizures prior to presentation. Methods - A sample comprising 1026 consecutive patients with either definite seizures or epilepsy attending a Neurology Outpatient Service was divided into four subgroups: single seizure (n = 314), incident epilepsy (n = 127), prevalent epilepsy (n = 398) and recurrent acute symptomatic seizures (RASS) (n = 175). The etiologic contribution of NC to each of the subgroups was examined with imaging studies. Results - Neurocysticercosis was diagnosed on imaging studies in 34.6% of patients with seizure disorder of any type, 59.2% of those with a single seizure, 23.7% of those with recurrent seizure disorder, 92.0% of those with RASS, none of cases of incident epilepsy and 2.0% with prevalent epilepsy. A diagnosis of NC was significantly associated with single seizures (P < 0.001). Conclusions - Imaging abnormalities consistent with NC are frequently noted in persons presenting with a single seizure in neurologic care in NC-endemic countries like India. The probability of diagnosing NC diminishes with increasing numbers of seizures. Among samples of individuals with recurrent-unprovoked seizures, it is rare for imaging to demonstrate lesions of NC.
- Acute symptomatic seizures