A study was made of the indirect costs that result from pesticide usage in the United States. These costs included: 45,000 annual non-fatal and fatal human pesticide poisonings; $12 million in livestock losses; $287 million in reduced natural enemies and pesticide resistance; $135 million in honey bee poisonings and reduced pollination; $70 million in losses of crops and trees; $11 million in fish and wildlife losses; and $140 million in miscellaneous losses. The estimated total of $839 million annual losses attributed to environmental and social costs of pesticide use represents only a small portion of the actual costs. A more complete accounting of the indirect costs would probably be several times the total reported. The results of this preliminary assessment underscore the serious nature of the environmental and social costs of pesticide use.