Environmental and occupational toxicants.

Frank de Vocht, Jelle Vlaanderen, Andrew C. Povey, Silvia Balbo, Roel Vermeulen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Biological monitoring is the analysis of human biological materials for a substance of interest and/or its metabolites (biomarkers) or a biochemical change that occurs as a result of an exposure to provide a quantitative measure of exposure or dose. These measures can be used in epidemiological studies either directly as estimates of exposure or indirectly in the calibration of other exposure assessment methods, such as questionnaires. This chapter will discuss important methodological considerations for the implementation of biomarkers of exogenous exposure in epidemiology by focusing on biomarker characteristics (e.g. variability, half-life) and their application in different study designs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)163-174
Number of pages12
JournalIARC scientific publications
Issue number163
StatePublished - 2011


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