Enumerative and binomial sequential sampling plans for soybean aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in soybean

E. W. Hodgson, E. C. Burkness, W. D. Hutchison, D. W. Ragsdale

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60 Scopus citations


Since the discovery of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, in midwestern U.S. soybean, Glycine max L., in 2000, the aphid has become a significant economic pest. Basic information about estimating population density within fields is unknown. Therefore, we developed two sampling plans to efficiently characterize A. glycines densities. Enumerative and binomial sequential plans were developed using 89 data sets collected from 10 commercial fields sampled during 2001-2003. Resampling software was used to validate the enumerative plan on whole plant counts, based on Taylor's power law parameters (a = 9.157 and b = 1.543). For research applications, the enumerative plan was modified to provide an actual precision level of 0.10 (SE/x̄), which resulted in an average sample number of 310 individual plants. For integrated pest management (IPM) purposes, we developed an enumerative plan with an actual precision of 0.25, which resulted in an average sample number of 38 individual plants. For IPM applications, the binomial plan will likely be more practical. Binomial plans were developed using two tally thresholds at five action thresholds. Final analysis of the operating characteristic curve for each plan indicated that the tally threshold of ≥40 aphids per plant, and an action threshold of 0.837 (84% of the plants infested) provided the most correct treat (4%) and no-treat (95%) decisions, with very low incorrect treat (0.5%) and no-treat (0.5%) decisions. A tally threshold of ≥40 aphids per plant and action thresholds of 84% of plants infested is equivalent to a mean density of 250 aphids per plant, a recently recommended economic threshold. Using this threshold, the minimum required sample number for the binomial plan was 11 plants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2127-2136
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of economic entomology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2004


  • Aphis glycines
  • Binomial sampling
  • Enumerative sampling
  • Resampling validation


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