Entangled Sensor-Networks for Dark-Matter Searches

Anthony J. Brady, Christina Gao, Roni Harnik, Zhen Liu, Zheshen Zhang, Quntao Zhuang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The hypothetical axion particle (of unknown mass) is a leading candidate for dark matter (DM). Many experiments search for axions with microwave cavities, where an axion may convert into a cavity photon, leading to a feeble excess in the output power of the cavity. Recent work [Backes et al., Nature 590, 238 (2021)] has demonstrated that injecting squeezed vacuum into the cavity can substantially accelerate the axion search. Here, we go beyond and provide a theoretical framework to leverage the benefits of quantum squeezing in a network setting consisting of many sensor cavities. By forming a local sensor network, the signals among the cavities can be combined coherently to boost the axion search. Furthermore, injecting multipartite entanglement across the cavities - generated by splitting a squeezed vacuum - enables a global noise reduction. We explore the performance advantage of such a local, entangled sensor network, which enjoys both coherence between the axion signals and entanglement between the sensors. Our analyses are pertinent to next-generation DM-axion searches aiming to leverage a network of sensors and quantum resources in an optimal way. Finally, we assess the possibility of using a more exotic quantum state, the Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) state. Despite a constant-factor improvement in the scan time relative to a single-mode squeezed state in the ideal case, the advantage of employing a GKP state disappears when a practical measurement scheme is considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number030333
JournalPRX Quantum
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
A.J.B. and Q.Z. thank M. Malnou and K. W. Lehnert for discussions on squeezing enhanced detection. The authors also thank L. Maccone for discussions. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, National Quantum Information Science Research Centers, Superconducting Quantum Materials and Systems Center (SQMS) under the Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359. A.J.B. and Q.Z. also acknowledge support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under Young Faculty Award (YFA) Grant No. N660012014029. Z.Z. and Q.Z. also acknowledge support from NSF OIA-2134830 and NSF OIA-2040575. The work of C.G. and R.H. is also supported by the DOE QuantISED program through the theory consortium “Intersections of QIS and Theoretical Particle Physics” at Fermilab. Z.Z. acknowledges Office of Naval Research Grant No. N00014-19-1-2190.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 authors. Published by the American Physical Society.


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