This qualitative study explores the strategies used by grandmothers caring for African-American grandchildren with out-of-school suspensions drawing from a larger study of caregivers. In-depth, semi-structured, individual interviews with 10 grandmothers who were caring for a total of 13 grandchildren with a range of 1 to 14 out-of-school suspensions (OSS) revealed that these grandmother caregivers took action with both their grandchildren and the grandchildren' s educators. Grandmothers became intensely involved with school and in-home educational activities. They structured their relationship with their grandchildren to attend to affection, provide incentives and respond with appropriate consequences. Additionally, grandmothers identified services and programs received and needed to enhance the grandchildren' s engagement with the learning process. Furthermore, based on strong opinions about changes needed in the schools, they provided concrete recommendations to educators. These recommendations call for professionals to support grandmothers' actions to reduce OSS and advocate to educators to revise policies and procedures that would promote a better understanding of grandchildren in the care of their grandmothers and the efforts that these grandmothers make to mitigate OSS.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The research was funded by the Agriculture Experiment Station (AES).
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- African-American students
- Grandmother caregivers
- Out-of-school suspensions