In multidimensional solution NMR experiments, π pulses are used extensively for inversion and refocusing operations on 1H, 13C and 15N nuclei. Pulse miscalibration, off-resonance effects, and J-coupling evolution during π pulse execution result in severe signal losses that are exacerbated at high magnetic fields. Here, we report the implementation of a triply-compensated π pulse (G5) optimized for both inversion and refocusing in widely used 2- and 3-dimensional experiments. By replacing most of the hard π pulses, adiabatic or composite pulses on the 1H, 13C and 15N channels with G5 pulses, we obtained signal enhancements ranging from 80 to 240%. We anticipate that triply-compensated pulses will be crucial for improving the performance of multidimensional and multinuclear pulse sequences at ultra-high fields.
- Genetic algorithm
- Off-resonance effects
- Sensitivity enhancement
- Triply compensated pulses (G5)
- Universal inversion and refocusing pulses