Enhancing Discovery of Genetic Variants for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Through Integration of Quantitative Phenotypes and Trauma Exposure Information

Adam X. Maihofer, Karmel W. Choi, Jonathan R.I. Coleman, Nikolaos P. Daskalakis, Christy A. Denckla, Elizabeth Ketema, Rajendra A. Morey, Renato Polimanti, Andrew Ratanatharathorn, Katy Torres, Aliza P. Wingo, Clement C. Zai, Allison E. Aiello, Lynn M. Almli, Ananda B. Amstadter, Soren B. Andersen, Ole A. Andreassen, Paul A. Arbisi, Allison E. Ashley-Koch, S. Bryn AustinEsmina Avdibegović, Anders D. Borglum, Dragan Babić, Marie Bækvad-Hansen, Dewleen G. Baker, Jean C. Beckham, Laura J. Bierut, Jonathan I. Bisson, Marco P. Boks, Elizabeth A. Bolger, Bekh Bradley, Meghan Brashear, Gerome Breen, Richard A. Bryant, Angela C. Bustamante, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Joseph R. Calabrese, José M. Caldas-de-Almeida, Chia Yen Chen, Anders M. Dale, Shareefa Dalvie, Jürgen Deckert, Douglas L. Delahanty, Michelle F. Dennis, Seth G. Disner, Katharina Domschke, Laramie E. Duncan, Alma Džubur Kulenović, Christopher R. Erbes, Alexandra Evans, Lindsay A. Farrer, Norah C. Feeny, Janine D. Flory, David Forbes, Carol E. Franz, Sandro Galea, Melanie E. Garrett, Aarti Gautam, Bizu Gelaye, Joel Gelernter, Elbert Geuze, Charles F. Gillespie, Aferdita Goçi, Scott D. Gordon, Guia Guffanti, Rasha Hammamieh, Michael A. Hauser, Andrew C. Heath, Sian M.J. Hemmings, David Michael Hougaard, Miro Jakovljević, Marti Jett, Eric Otto Johnson, Ian Jones, Tanja Jovanovic, Xue Jun Qin, Karen Inge Karstoft, Milissa L. Kaufman, Ronald C. Kessler, Alaptagin Khan, Nathan A. Kimbrel, Anthony P. King, Nastassja Koen, Henry R. Kranzler, William S. Kremen, Bruce R. Lawford, Lauren A.M. Lebois, Catrin Lewis, Israel Liberzon, Sarah D. Linnstaedt, Mark W. Logue, Adriana Lori, Božo Lugonja, Jurjen J. Luykx, Michael J. Lyons, Jessica L. Maples-Keller, Charles Marmar, Nicholas G. Martin, Douglas Maurer, Matig R. Mavissakalian, Alexander McFarlane, Regina E. McGlinchey, Katie A. McLaughlin, Samuel A. McLean, Divya Mehta, Rebecca Mellor, Vasiliki Michopoulos, William Milberg, Mark W. Miller, Charles Phillip Morris, Ole Mors, Preben B. Mortensen, Elliot C. Nelson, Merete Nordentoft, Sonya B. Norman, Meaghan O'Donnell, Holly K. Orcutt, Matthew S. Panizzon, Edward S. Peters, Alan L. Peterson, Matthew Peverill, Robert H. Pietrzak, Melissa A. Polusny, John P. Rice, Victoria B. Risbrough, Andrea L. Roberts, Alex O. Rothbaum, Barbara O. Rothbaum, Peter Roy-Byrne, Kenneth J. Ruggiero, Ariane Rung, Bart P.F. Rutten, Nancy L. Saccone, Sixto E. Sanchez, Dick Schijven, Soraya Seedat, Antonia V. Seligowski, Julia S. Seng, Christina M. Sheerin, Derrick Silove, Alicia K. Smith, Jordan W. Smoller, Scott R. Sponheim, Dan J. Stein, Jennifer S. Stevens, Martin H. Teicher, Wesley K. Thompson, Edward Trapido, Monica Uddin, Robert J. Ursano, Leigh Luella van den Heuvel, Miranda Van Hooff, Eric Vermetten, Christiaan H. Vinkers, Joanne Voisey, Yunpeng Wang, Zhewu Wang, Thomas Werge, Michelle A. Williams, Douglas E. Williamson, Sherry Winternitz, Christiane Wolf, Erika J. Wolf, Rachel Yehuda, Keith A. Young, Ross Mc D. Young, Hongyu Zhao, Lori A. Zoellner, Magali Haas, Heather Lasseter, Allison C. Provost, Rany M. Salem, Jonathan Sebat, Richard A. Shaffer, Tianying Wu, Stephan Ripke, Mark J. Daly, Kerry J. Ressler, Karestan C. Koenen, Murray B. Stein, Caroline M. Nievergelt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is heritable and a potential consequence of exposure to traumatic stress. Evidence suggests that a quantitative approach to PTSD phenotype measurement and incorporation of lifetime trauma exposure (LTE) information could enhance the discovery power of PTSD genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Methods: A GWAS on PTSD symptoms was performed in 51 cohorts followed by a fixed-effects meta-analysis (N = 182,199 European ancestry participants). A GWAS of LTE burden was performed in the UK Biobank cohort (N = 132,988). Genetic correlations were evaluated with linkage disequilibrium score regression. Multivariate analysis was performed using Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS. Functional mapping and annotation of leading loci was performed with FUMA. Replication was evaluated using the Million Veteran Program GWAS of PTSD total symptoms. Results: GWASs of PTSD symptoms and LTE burden identified 5 and 6 independent genome-wide significant loci, respectively. There was a 72% genetic correlation between PTSD and LTE. PTSD and LTE showed largely similar patterns of genetic correlation with other traits, albeit with some distinctions. Adjusting PTSD for LTE reduced PTSD heritability by 31%. Multivariate analysis of PTSD and LTE increased the effective sample size of the PTSD GWAS by 20% and identified 4 additional loci. Four of these 9 PTSD loci were independently replicated in the Million Veteran Program. Conclusions: Through using a quantitative trait measure of PTSD, we identified novel risk loci not previously identified using prior case-control analyses. PTSD and LTE have a high genetic overlap that can be leveraged to increase discovery power through multivariate methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)626-636
Number of pages11
JournalBiological psychiatry
Volume91
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health / U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (Grant No. R01MH106595 [to CMN, IL, MBS, KJRe, and KCK], National Institutes of Health (Grant No. 5U01MH109539 to the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium ), and Brain & Behavior Research Foundation (Young Investigator Grant [to KWC]). Genotyping of samples was provided in part through the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Genetics at the Broad Institute supported by Cohen Veterans Bioscience . Statistical analyses were carried out on the LISA/Genetic Cluster Computer ( https://userinfo.surfsara.nl/systems/lisa ) hosted by SURFsara. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank resource (Application No. 41209). This work would have not been possible without the financial support provided by Cohen Veterans Bioscience, the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Genetics at the Broad Institute, and One Mind.

Funding Information:
MBS has in the past 3 years received consulting income from Actelion, Acadia Pharmaceuticals, Aptinyx, Bionomics, BioXcel Therapeutics, Clexio, EmpowerPharm, GW Pharmaceuticals, Janssen, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, and Roche/Genentech and has stock options in Oxeia Biopharmaceuticals and Epivario. In the past 3 years, NPD has held a part-time paid position at Cohen Veterans Bioscience, has been a consultant for Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, and is on the scientific advisory board for Sentio Solutions for unrelated work. In the past 3 years, KJRe has been a consultant for Datastat, Inc., RallyPoint Networks, Inc., Sage Pharmaceuticals, and Takeda. JLM-K has received funding and a speaking fee from COMPASS Pathways. MU has been a consultant for System Analytic. HRK is a member of the Dicerna scientific advisory board and a member of the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology Alcohol Clinical Trials Initiative, which during the past 3 years was supported by Alkermes, Amygdala Neurosciences, Arbor Pharmaceuticals, Dicerna, Ethypharm, Indivior, Lundbeck, Mitsubishi, and Otsuka. HRK and JG are named as inventors on Patent Cooperative Treaty patent application number 15/878,640, entitled “Genotype-guided dosing of opioid agonists,” filed January 24, 2018. RP and JG are paid for their editorial work on the journal Complex Psychiatry. OAA is a consultant to HealthLytix. All other authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health/ U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (Grant No. R01MH106595 [to CMN, IL, MBS, KJRe, and KCK], National Institutes of Health (Grant No. 5U01MH109539 to the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium), and Brain & Behavior Research Foundation (Young Investigator Grant [to KWC]). Genotyping of samples was provided in part through the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Genetics at the Broad Institute supported by Cohen Veterans Bioscience. Statistical analyses were carried out on the LISA/Genetic Cluster Computer (https://userinfo.surfsara.nl/systems/lisa) hosted by SURFsara. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank resource (Application No. 41209). This work would have not been possible without the financial support provided by Cohen Veterans Bioscience, the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Genetics at the Broad Institute, and One Mind. This material has been reviewed by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. There is no objection to its presentation and/or publication. The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting true views of the U.S. Department of the Army or the Department of Defense. We thank the investigators who comprise the PGC-PTSD working group and especially the more than 206,000 research participants worldwide who shared their life experiences and biological samples with PGC-PTSD investigators. We thank Mark Zervas for his critical input. Full acknowledgments are in Supplement 1. MBS has in the past 3 years received consulting income from Actelion, Acadia Pharmaceuticals, Aptinyx, Bionomics, BioXcel Therapeutics, Clexio, EmpowerPharm, GW Pharmaceuticals, Janssen, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, and Roche/Genentech and has stock options in Oxeia Biopharmaceuticals and Epivario. In the past 3 years, NPD has held a part-time paid position at Cohen Veterans Bioscience, has been a consultant for Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, and is on the scientific advisory board for Sentio Solutions for unrelated work. In the past 3 years, KJRe has been a consultant for Datastat, Inc. RallyPoint Networks, Inc. Sage Pharmaceuticals, and Takeda. JLM-K has received funding and a speaking fee from COMPASS Pathways. MU has been a consultant for System Analytic. HRK is a member of the Dicerna scientific advisory board and a member of the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology Alcohol Clinical Trials Initiative, which during the past 3 years was supported by Alkermes, Amygdala Neurosciences, Arbor Pharmaceuticals, Dicerna, Ethypharm, Indivior, Lundbeck, Mitsubishi, and Otsuka. HRK and JG are named as inventors on Patent Cooperative Treaty patent application number 15/878,640, entitled ?Genotype-guided dosing of opioid agonists,? filed January 24, 2018. RP and JG are paid for their editorial work on the journal Complex Psychiatry. OAA is a consultant to HealthLytix. All other authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Society of Biological Psychiatry

Keywords

  • GWAS
  • Genetics
  • Heritability
  • PTSD
  • PheWAS
  • Trauma

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