Upcycle of co-products from corn–ethanol plant into protein-rich animal feed with balanced key amino acids via solid-state fermentation is a promising approach to economically support both biofuel and animal feed industries. However, there are multiple types of solid-state fermentation microorganisms and growth conditions that have not been tested. In this study, Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae were used to ferment corn-based wet distiller’s grains with solubles (WDGS). The effects of fermentation conditions (temperature, agitation, and moisture) and supplementations (extraneous carbon and nitrogen sources) were evaluated on protein production and amino acids profiles before and after fermentation. The study established best fermentation conditions (23 °C, static incubation for 4 days at 70% initial moisture content) to improve protein content for both R. oryzae and M. indicus. Moreover, urea supplied to R. oryzae and M. indicus improved protein concentration by 35 and 38%, and total amino acids content by 28 and 18%, respectively. The amount of 693.1 and 451.8 mg of additional total amino acids including 262.8 and 227.7 mg of key amino acids (lysine, methionine, tryptophan, and arginine) was synthesized by R. oryzae and M. indicus, respectively, per supply of 536 mg urea in 25 g of WDGS. This study demonstrated the feasibility of urea as a low-cost nitrogen source for amino acid biosynthesis in fungal fermentation of WDGS, which could contribute to the increasing demand for high-value monogastric animal feed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Minnesota Corn Grower?s Association and US National Science Foundation (Award No. 1804702).
This work was supported by the Minnesota Corn Grower’s Association and US National Science Foundation (Award No. 1804702).
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
- Amino acids
- Corn distiller’s grains with solubles
- Filamentous fungi
- Solid-state fermentation
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article