Background: 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a promising compound for various applications in chemical, cosmetic, and agricultural industries. Pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive host strain for producing 2,3-BD because a large amount of pyruvate could be shunted to 2,3-BD production instead of ethanol synthesis. However, 2,3-BD yield, productivity, and titer by engineered yeast were inferior to native bacterial producers because of the following metabolic limitations. First, the Pdc-deficient yeast showed growth defect due to a shortage of C2-compounds. Second, redox imbalance during the 2,3-BD production led to glycerol formation that lowered the yield. Results: To overcome these problems, the expression levels of Pdc from a Crabtree-negative yeast were optimized in S. cerevisiae. Specifically, Candida tropicalis PDC1 (CtPDC1) was used to minimize the production of ethanol but maximize cell growth and 2,3-BD productivity. As a result, productivity of the BD5-G1CtPDC1 strain expressing an optimal level of Pdc was 2.3 folds higher than that of the control strain in flask cultivation. Through a fed-batch fermentation, 121.8 g/L 2,3-BD was produced in 80 h. NADH oxidase from Lactococcus lactis (noxE) was additionally expressed in the engineered yeast with an optimal activity of Pdc. The fed-batch fermentation with the optimized 2-stage aeration control led to production of 154.3 g/L 2,3-BD in 78 h. The overall yield of 2,3-BD was 0.404 g 2,3-BD/g glucose which corresponds to 80.7% of theoretical yield. Conclusions: A massive metabolic shift in the engineered S. cerevisiae (BD5-G1CtPDC1-nox) expressing NADH oxidase was observed, suggesting that redox imbalance was a major bottleneck for efficient production of 2,3-BD by engineered yeast. Maximum 2,3-BD titer in this study was close to the highest among the reported microbial production studies. The results demonstrate that resolving both C2-compound limitation and redox imbalance is critical to increase 2,3-BD production in the Pdc-deficient S. cerevisiae. Our strategy to express fine-tuned PDC and noxE could be applicable not only to 2,3-BD production, but also other chemical production systems using Pdc-deficient S. cerevisiae.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Advanced Biomass R&D Center (ABC) of Global Frontier Project (2011‑0031359) and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant (2014M1A2A2069904) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning.
This study is funded by National Research Foundation of Korea.
- Metabolic engineering
- NADH oxidase
- Pyruvate decarboxylase
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae