Small instestinal submucosa (SIS) is an easily produced material that has been used experimentally for tissue engineering. To evaluate the ability of SIS to facilitate bone growth within a long-bone defect, a segment of the radius was surgically removed in adult, female Sprague-Dawley rats. The defect was either left unfilled or implanted with SIS, demineralized cortical bone (DMCB), or ovalbumin. The defect was evaluated radiographically and histologically after 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks. Tissue remodeling within the defect was evident by week 3 in SIS- and DMCB-treated rats. Filling was characterized initially by infiltration of mononuclear cells and extracellular material in SIS-implanted rats and multifocal remodeling bone particles and cartilage formation in DMCB-implanted rats. Cartilage was observed as early as 3 weeks and bone as early as 6 weeks in SIS-implanted rats. Filling of the defect arose from multiple foci in DMCB-implanted rats, but was contiguous with and parallel to the ulnar shaft in SIS-implanted rats, suggesting that defect repair by SIS may be conductive rather than inductive. Rats in which the defect was left unfilled demonstrated slow but progressive filling of the defect, characterized by mononuclear cell infiltrates and fibrous extracellular material. In summary, SIS facilitated rapid filling of a long-bone defect. These results suggest that SIS may be useful as a bone repair material.
- Intestinal submucosa
- Tissue engineering