Background: In the yeast biomass production process, protein carbonylation has severe adverse effects since it diminishes biomass yield and profitability of industrial production plants. However, this significant detriment of yeast performance can be alleviated by increasing thioredoxins levels. Thioredoxins are important antioxidant defenses implicated in many functions in cells, and their primordial functions include scavenging of reactive oxygen species that produce dramatic and irreversible alterations such as protein carbonylation.Results: In this work we have found several proteins specifically protected by yeast Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2p). Bidimensional electrophoresis and carbonylated protein identification from TRX-deficient and TRX-overexpressing cells revealed that glycolysis and fermentation-related proteins are specific targets of Trx2p protection. Indeed, the TRX2 overexpressing strain presented increased activity of the central carbon metabolism enzymes. Interestingly, Trx2p specifically preserved alcohol dehydrogenase I (Adh1p) from carbonylation, decreased oligomer aggregates and increased its enzymatic activity.Conclusions: The identified proteins suggest that the fermentative capacity detriment observed under industrial conditions in T73 wine commercial strain results from the oxidative carbonylation of specific glycolytic and fermentation enzymes. Indeed, increased thioredoxin levels enhance the performance of key fermentation enzymes such as Adh1p, which consequently increases fermentative capacity.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work has been supported by grants AGL 2005-00508 and AGL 2008-00060 from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (MEC). R.G-P. was a predoctoral fellow of the I3P program from the CSIC (Spanish National Research Council). R.P-T. was a postdoctoral fellow of the JAEDOC program from the CSIC. We thank the Scientific-Technical Service of Proteomics and Genomics at the University of Lleida for their support in the proteomic analyses.