Air pollution problems persist in many cities throughout the world, despite drastic reductions in regulated emissions of criteria pollutants from vehicles when tested on standardised driving cycles. New vehicle emissions regulations in the European Union and United States require the use of OBD and portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) to confirm vehicles meet specified limits during on-road operation. The resultant in-use testing will yield a large amount of OBD and PEMS data across a range of vehicles. If used properly, the availability of OBD and PEMS data could enable greater insight into the nature of real-world emissions and allow detailed modelling of vehicle energy use and emissions. This paper presents a methodology to use this data to create engine maps of fuel use and emissions of nitrous oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). Effective gear ratios, gearbox shift envelopes, candidate engine maps and a set of vehicle configurations are simulated over driving cycles using the ADVISOR powertrain simulation tool. This method is demonstrated on three vehicles – one truck and two passenger cars – tested on a vehicle dynamometer and one driven with a PEMS. The optimum vehicle configuration and associated maps were able to reproduce the shape and magnitude of observed fuel use and emissions on a per second basis. In general, total simulated fuel use and emissions were within 5% of observed values across the three test cases. The fitness of this method for other purposes was demonstrated by creating cold start maps and isolating the performance of tailpipe emissions reduction technologies. The potential of this work extends beyond the creation of vehicle engine maps to allow investigations into: emissions hot spots; real-world emissions factors; and accurate air quality modelling using simulated per second emissions from vehicles operating in over any driving cycle.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge the UK EPSRC funding provided for this work under the Centre for Sustainable Road Freight Transport ( EP/K00915X/1 ) and the Energy Efficient Cities Initiative ( EP/F034350/1 ). Appendix A
© 2016 The Authors
- Engine maps
- On-board diagnostics (OBD)
- Portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS)
- Vehicle powertrain modelling