Energy end-use model of paper manufacturing in the US

Nesrin Ozalp, Barry Hyman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


This paper models the combined energy end-use for the four major energy consuming subsectors of paper industry in the US. The model allocates combustible fuel and renewable energy inputs among generic end-uses including intermediate conversions through onsite power and steam generation. The methodology is described in detail for paper mills-except newsprint, which is the single biggest energy consumer among the four subsectors. The model is presented in the form of a graphical depiction of energy flows. This model can serve as the key to create energy process-step models for paper and allied products. The approach is applicable to all other industries and is consistent with the US Department of Energy data for 1998, which is the most recent available data. When used in conjunction with similar models for other years, it can be used to identify the changes in energy utilization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)540-548
Number of pages9
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - Apr 2006

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by US Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under Task Order 11457 of Master Agreement 6630 and through a research agreement with the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. We would like to thank to Dr. Joseph Roop of Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for his assistance in interpreting data and providing resources on the paper industry.


  • End-use
  • Energy
  • Energy efficiency
  • Paper industry


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