Energy, amino acid, and phosphorus digestibility and energy prediction of thermally processed food waste sources for swine

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Recycling energy and nutrients from food waste into animal feed decreases the environmental impact of food animal production. However, recycling energy and nutrients from various food waste sources into swine feeding programs is constrained by the high variability and lack of data on the digestibility of energy and nutrients. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the digestibility of energy, amino acids, and phosphorus in thermally dried food waste sources fed to growing pigs and to compare in vivo determined digestibility values with those obtained from in vitro digestibility procedures and published prediction equations to determine the accuracy of using these nutritional evaluation methods. Pigs (n = 36; initial body weight = 16.37 ± 1.9 kg) were utilized to determine digestible energy (DE) and metaboliz-able energy (ME) content, as well as standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in three sources of dehydrated food waste in three separate trials. Initial body weight of pigs at the beginning of each digestibility trial was used as the blocking factor in a randomized complete block design. Diets were formulated to contain 30% food waste derived from fish waste (FW), supermarket waste (containing bakery, fruits and vegetables, meat, and deli foods from a single supermarket; SMW), and fruit and vegetable waste (FVW). The DE and ME content of FW (DE = 5,057 kcal/kg; ME = 4,820 kcal/kg) and SMW (DE = 5,071 kcal/kg; ME = 4,922 kcal/kg) were not different (P < 0.05), whereas FVW had the least (P > 0.05) DE (2,570 kcal/kg) and ME (2,460 kcal/kg) content compared with FW and SMW. Digestibility of crude protein and amino acids was greater (P > 0.05) in FW and SMW compared with FVW. The in vitro digestibility procedure can be used to approximate the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and energy in SMW, FW, and FVW compared with in vivo estimates, but significant error exists depending on the chemical characteristics of each food waste source. However, use of the prediction equations and digestibility data obtained from the in vitro procedure resulted in high accuracy in estimating DE content of FW (observed = 5,058 kcal/kg DM vs. predicted = 4,948 kcal/kg DM), SMW (observed = 5,071 kcal/kg DM vs. predicted 4,978 kcal/kg DM), and FVW (observed = 2,570 kcal/kg DM vs. predicted 2,814 kcal/kg DM) sources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)676-691
Number of pages16
JournalTranslational Animal Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 26 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society of Animal Science.


  • Amino acids
  • Digestibility
  • Energy
  • Food waste
  • Phosphorus
  • Swine


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