Endurance of SN 2005ip after a decade: X-rays, radio and Ha like SN 1988Z require long-lived pre-supernova mass-loss

Nathan Smith, Charles D. Kilpatrick, Jon C. Mauerhan, Jennifer E. Andrews, Raffaella Margutti, Wen Fai Fong, Melissa L. Graham, Wei Kang Zheng, Patrick L. Kelly, Alexei V. Filippenko, Ori D. Fox

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Supernova (SN) 2005ip was a Type IIn event notable for its sustained strong interaction with circumstellar material (CSM), coronal emission lines and infrared (IR) excess, interpreted as shock interaction with the very dense and clumpy wind of an extreme red supergiant. We present a series of late-time spectra of SN 2005ip and a first radio detection of this SN, plus late-time X-rays, all of which indicate that its CSM interaction is still strong a decade post-explosion. We also present and discuss new spectra of geriatric SNe with continued CSM interaction: SN 1988Z, SN 1993J and SN 1998S. From 3 to 10 yr post-explosion, SN 2005ip's Hα luminosity and other observed characteristics were nearly identical to those of the radio-luminous SN 1988Z, and much more luminous than SNe 1993J and 1998S. At 10 yr after explosion, SN 2005ip showed a drop in Hα luminosity, followed by a quick resurgence over several months. We interpret this Ha variability as ejecta crashing into a dense shell located ≲0.05 pc from the star, which may be the same shell that caused the IR echo at earlier epochs. The extreme Hα luminosities in SN 2005ip and SN 1988Z are still dominated by the forward shock at 10 yr post-explosion, whereas SN 1993J and SN 1998S are dominated by the reverse shock at a similar age. Continuous strong CSM interaction in SNe 2005ip and 1988Z is indicative of enhanced mass-loss for ~103 yr before core collapse, longer than Ne, O or Si burning phases. Instead, the episodic mass-loss must extend back through C burning and perhaps even part of He burning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3021-3034
Number of pages14
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 21 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank an anonymous referee for helpful suggestions. Support was provided by the NSF through grants AST-1210599 and AST-1312221 to the University of Arizona. CDK's research receives support from NASA through Contract Number 1255094 issued by JPL/Caltech. WF was supported by NASA through an Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship. The SN research of AVF's group at U.C. Berkeley is supported by Gary & Cynthia Bengier, the Richard & Rhoda Goldman Fund, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the TABASGO Foundation and NSF grant AST-1211916. We thank the staffs at the MMT and Keck Observatories for their assistance with the observations. Observations using Steward Observatory facilities were obtained as part of the large observing programme AZTEC: Arizona Transient Exploration and Characterization. Some of the observations reported in this paper were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. This research was also based in part on observations made with the LBT. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. TheLBTCorporation partners are theUniversity of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; the LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam and Heidelberg University; the Ohio State University and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota and University of Virginia. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at theW. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and NASA; the observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community.We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 The Authors.


  • Circumstellar matter
  • Stars: evolution
  • Stars: winds, outflows
  • Supernovae: general
  • Supernovae: individual: SN 2005ip


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