We report a case of subacute bacterial endocarditis associated with small vessel vasculitis and a strongly positive cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) test. It is important to recognize this cause of positive c-ANCA because infectious endocarditis may closely mimic the clinical manifestations of ANCA-associated vasculitides such as Wegener granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis. Furthermore, ANCA-associated vasculitis may result in noninfectious endocarditis, which may be confused with bacterial endocarditis. In this paper, we review reported cases of ANCA-positive bacterial endocarditis and compare them to the reported cases of ANCA-associated idiopathic vasculitis with endocardial compromise.
- Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
- Wegener granulomatosis