Endocan is a proteoglycan secreted by activated endothelium that regulates angiogenesis via interaction with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We hypothesized that women diagnosed with preeclampsia (PE) and/or fetal growth restriction (FGR) have elevated circulating endocan concentrations in direct relationship with severity of clinical manifestations. Serum concentration of endocan and HGF were analyzed in 224 women grouped as healthy pregnant controls (P-CRL, n = 77), PE with severe features (sPE, n = 83), chronic hypertension (crHTN: n = 36), idiopathic FGR (n = 18), and healthy non-pregnant controls (NP-CRL, n = 7). Endocan and HGF measured by immunoassay were analyzed along with markers of inflammation, angiogenesis, and protein misfolding (urine congophilia). Endocan expression in the placenta and/or myometrium was studied by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Compared to gestational age-matched P-CRL, women with early-onset sPE had higher circulating endocan concentrations. Among women with PE and/or FGR, endocan concentration correlated with soluble endoglin and urine congophilia but not with HGF or markers of inflammation or angiogenesis. In the placenta, endocan was expressed in villous and extravillous trophoblasts and endothelium. Intense endocan immunostaining was observed in plaque-like aggregations of sPE placentas complicated with FGR. In addition, thickened blood vessels in the myometrium of sPE patients stained positive for endocan. Women with early-onset sPE have elevated serum endocan likely reflecting chronic endothelial activation. Enhanced expression and/or deposition of endocan at the sites of placental injury and in remodeled maternal blood vessels supports a role for endocan in either vascular rescue or as a contributor to FGR and perhaps long-term cardiovascular morbidity.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Eunice Kennedy Shiver National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) Grant RO1 HD084628 (to IAB).
© 2022, Society for Reproductive Investigation.
- Fetal growth restriction
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article