Mediastinoscopy is the gold standard for mediastinal lymph node (MLN) staging for non-small cell lung cancer patients; however, mediastinoscopy is invasive and allows access to a limited number of American Thoracic Society MLN stations (1, 2, 3, 4, and 7). Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is emerging as a useful, less invasive staging technique that offers access to a wider range of MLN stations (2, 3, 4, 7, 10, and 11). Although EBUS-TBNA has excellent sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy, an alternative MLN biopsy technique (i.e., mediastinoscopy or thoracoscopy) is required to confirm negative cytology findings, especially after induction therapy. Additionally, an experienced cytopathologist is critical to establishing an effective EBUS-TBNA program.
- lymph nodes
- non-small cell lung