Emotional labor: A conceptualization and scale development

Theresa M. Glomb, Michael J. Tews

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

309 Scopus citations


Despite increased research attention, the emotional labor construct remains without a clear conceptualization and operationalization. This study designed a conceptually grounded, psychometrically sound instrument to measure emotional labor with an emphasis on the experience of discrete emotions - the Discrete Emotions Emotional Labor Scale (DEELS). This conceptualization and operationalization of emotional labor departs from existing efforts because it focuses on the behavior of emotional expression, encompassing genuine, faked, and suppressed positive and negative emotional displays. Results provide initial evidence for the convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity of the DEELS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Vocational Behavior
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2004

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Portions of this research were supported by a Grant-In-Aid of Research, Artistry and Scholarship from the University of Minnesota. We are particularly grateful to the organizations that participated in this research.


Dive into the research topics of 'Emotional labor: A conceptualization and scale development'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this