Emergent 1-form symmetries

Aleksey Cherman, Theodore Jacobson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We explore the necessary conditions for 1-form symmetries to emerge in the long-distance limit when they are explicitly broken at short distances. A minimal requirement is that there exist operators which become topological at long distances and that these operators have nontrivial correlation functions. These criteria are obeyed when the would-be emergent symmetry is spontaneously broken, or is involved in 't Hooft anomalies. On the other hand, confinement, i.e. a phase with unbroken 1-form symmetry, is nearly incompatible with the emergence of 1-form symmetries. We comment on some implications of our results for QCD as well as the idea of Higgs-confinement continuity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number125013
JournalPhysical Review D
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 15 2024

Bibliographical note

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© 2024 authors. Published by the American Physical Society.


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