Background: Systematic studies pertaining to the emergence of resistance during therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infections (BSIs) in haematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients and haematological malignancy (HM) patients are lacking. Objectives: To determine how frequently non-susceptibility emerges during therapy of P. aeruginosa BSIs and to compare these findings with non-HCT/HM patients. Patients and methods: P. aeruginosa BSIs that occurred at our institution between 1 July 2012 and 31 October 2019 in HCT/HM patients and non-HCT/HM patients were identified. Episodes in which bacteraemia persisted while on appropriate therapy ( persistent BSI ) were evaluated for emergence of non-susceptibility during therapy. Results: In total, 96 BSI episodes among 86 HCT/HM patients were analysed. Eight persistent BSI episodes (8.3%) occurred in eight patients (9.3%). Repeat susceptibility testing was performed in seven (87.5%) of these episodes. Non-susceptibility to the treatment agent emerged in five (71.4%) episodes and to any antipseudomonal agent in seven (100%) episodes. The 21 day mortality rate associated with persistent BSI was 87.5% (seven of eight), and it was 80% (four of five) among persistent BSI episodes in which non-susceptibility to the treatment agent emerged on therapy. Non-susceptibility to any antipseudomonal agent during persistent BSI emerged significantly more frequently in HCT/HM patients compared with non-HCT/HM patients. Conclusions: Non-susceptibility emerges frequently during persistent P. aeruginosa BSIs in HCT/HM patients, and this is associated with a high mortality rate. Our findings have implications for the management of persistent P. aeruginosa BSIs in these patients. Larger studies are needed to confirm and expand on our findings.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.