Objectives: To identify the fosfomycin pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) index (fT > MIC, fAUC/MIC or fCmax/MIC) most closely correlated with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and determine the PK/PD target associated with various extents of bacterial killing and the prevention of emergence of resistance. Methods: Dose fractionation was conducted over 24 h in a dynamic one-compartment in vitro PK/PD model utilizing P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and two MDR clinical isolates (CR 1005 and CW 7). In total, 35 different dosing regimens were examined across the three strains. Microbiological response was examined by log changes and population analysis profiles. A Hill-type Emax model was fitted to the killing effect data (expressed as the log10 ratio of the area under the cfu/mL curve for treated regimens versus controls). Results: Bacterial killing of no more than ~3 log10 cfu/mL was achieved irrespective of regimen. The fAUC/MIC was the PK/PD index most closely correlated with efficacy (R2=0.80). The fAUC/MIC targets required to achieve 1 and 2 log10 reductions in the area under the cfu/mL curve relative to growth control were 489 and 1024, respectively. No regimen was able to suppress the emergence of resistance, and near-complete replacement of susceptible with resistant subpopulations occurred with virtually all regimens. Conclusions: Bacterial killing for fosfomycin against P. aeruginosa was most closely associated with the fAUC/MIC. Suppression of fosfomycin-resistant subpopulations could not be achieved even with fosfomycin exposures well above those that can be safely achieved clinically.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a Ramaciotti Establishment Grant provided by the Ramaciotti Foundations and an Australian Society for Antimicrobials Research Grant provided by the Australian Society for Antimicrobials. C. B. L. is the recipient of an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Career Development Fellowship (APP1062509). A. Y. P was supported by an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Practitioner Fellowship.