Eleven year correlation of physical fruit texture traits between computerized penetrometers and sensory assessment in an apple breeding program

Soon Li Teh, Lisa Brutcher, Bonnie Schonberg, Kate Evans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Fruit texture is a major target of apple (Malus domestica) breeding programs due to its influence on consumer preference. This multitrait feature is typically rated using sensory assessment, which is subjective and prone to biases. instrumental measurements have predominantly targeted firmness of the outer region of fruit cortex using industry standard Magness-Taylor-type penetrometers, while other metrics remain largely unused. Additionally, there have been limited reports on correlating sensory attributes with instrumental metrics on many diverse apple selections. This report is the first to correlate multiyear historical fruit texture information of instrumental metrics and sensory assessment in an apple breeding program. Through 11 years of routine fruit quality evaluation at the Washington State University apple breeding program, physical textural data of 84,552 fruit acquired from computerized penetrometers were correlated with sensory assessment. Correlations among various instrumental metrics are high (0.63 £ r £ 1.00; P< 0.0001). In correlating instrumental outputs with sensory data, there is a significant correlation (r = 0.43; P< 0.0001) between the instrumental crispness value and sensory crispness. Additionally, instrumental hardness traits are significantly correlated (0.61 £ r £ 0.69; P< 0.0001) with sensory hardness. Outputs from two versions of computerized penetrometers were tested and shown to have no statistical differences. Overall, this report demonstrates potential use of instrumental metrics as firmness and crispness estimates for selecting apples of diverse backgrounds in a breeding program. However, in testing a large number and diversity of fruit, experimenters should perform data curation and account for lower limits/thresholds of the instrument.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)719-724
Number of pages6
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, American Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.


  • Crispness
  • Firmness
  • Hardness
  • Malus domestica


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