Although depressive symptoms have been linked to stroke, most research has been in relatively ethnically homogeneous, predominantly white, samples. Using the United States based Health and Retirement Study, we compared the relationships between elevated depressive symptoms and incident first stroke for Hispanic, black, or white/ other participants (N = 18,648) and estimated the corresponding Population Attributable Fractions. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was higher in blacks (27%) and Hispanics (33%) than whites/others (18%). Elevated depressive symptoms prospectively predicted stroke risk in the whites/other group (HR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.36-1.73) and among blacks (HR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.05-1.65). The HR was similar but only marginally statistically significant among Hispanics (HR = 1.33; 95% CI: 0.92-1.91). The Population Attributable Fraction, indicating the percent of first strokes that would be prevented if the incident stroke rate in those with elevated depressive symptoms was the same as the rate for those without depressive symptoms, was 8.3% for whites/ others, 7.8% for blacks, and 10.3% for Hispanics.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The HRS is sponsored by the National Institute on Aging (grant NIA U01AG009740) and is conducted by the University of Michigan. The HRS is approved by the University of Michigan Health Sciences Human Subjects Committee and this study is approved by the Harvard School of Public Health Human Subjects Committee.
Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the American Heart Association grants 09PRE2080078 and 10SDG2640243, the NIH National Research Service Award (NRSA) training grant (T32-HL098048-01) and from the Milton Fund of Harvard University.
Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Stroke Depression Minority Risk factor Psychosocial Disparities