Unlocking the dynamic inner workings of the brain continues to remain a grand challenge of the 21st century. To this end, functional neuroimaging modalities represent an outstanding approach to better understand the mechanisms of both normal and abnormal brain functions. The ability to image brain function with ever increasing spatial and temporal resolution has made a significant leap over the past several decades. Further delineation of functional networks could lead to improved understanding of brain function in both normal and diseased states. This paper reviews recent advancements and current challenges in dynamic functional neuroimaging techniques, including electrophysiological source imaging, multimodal neuroimaging integrating fMRI with EEG/MEG, and functional connectivity imaging.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received October 29, 2011; revised January 3, 2011; accepted January 22, 2011. Date of publication April 7, 2011; date of current version June 17, 2011. This work was supported in part by the National Institute of Health under Grant RO1 EB007920, Grant RO1 EB006433, Grant T32 EB008389, and in part by the National Science Foundation under Program CBET-0933067. Asterisk indicates corresponding author.
- Electroencephalography (EEG)
- electrophysiological imaging
- functional connectivity
- functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
- magnetoencephalography (MEG)
- source imaging